Our staff editors continue to share exciting, interesting, and thought-provoking reading material in the recommended articles series.
This week, we would like to share several latest articles on Parkinson and Atypical Parkinson's Diseases.
Title: Are patients with Parkinson's disease at a lower risk of catching the common cold? Propensity score matching
Authors: Shuichiro Neshige，Shiro Aoki，Tomohisa Nezu，Masahiro Nakamori， Yu Yamazaki，Tomohiko Ohshita，Hirofumi Maruyama
Type: Research Article
Accumulating evidence indicating that inflammatory responses play crucial roles in Parkinson's disease (PD) development provided a hypothesis that physiological alpha-synuclein may contribute to inflammatory responses against infections during non-advanced stages of PD. Thus, we examined the risk of catching a common cold in patients with PD as compared to other common brain diseases.
We extracted PD (non-advanced; without dementia) and control (AD: Alzheimer's disease, migraine, epilepsy, and ischemic stroke) patient data from insurance claim data available between 2010 and 2021. After confirming the clinical PD diagnosis, we investigated factors associated with cold diagnoses and used propensity score matching to identify differences in the incidence of colds between PD and control patients.
Diagnosis of colds in PD patients (n = 726) and controls (AD = 377, migraine = 1019, epilepsy = 3414, ischemic stroke = 6943) was found in 1186 (9.5%) patients, which was independently associated with being female (odds ratio: OR 1.59; 95%CI 1.41–1.79; P < 0.0001), follow-up by neurologists (OR 1.30; 95%CI 1.15–1.48; P < 0.0001), diagnosis of PD (OR 0.30; 95%CI 0.20–0.45; P < 0.0001) and COVID-19 pandemic period (OR 0.58; 95%CI 0.47–0.72; P < 0.0001). After propensity score matching, the incidence of colds was significantly lower in PD (3.4%) versus in controls; AD (9.8%; P < 0.0001), migraine (13.3%; P < 0.0001), epilepsy (11.0%; P < 0.0001), ischemic stroke (8.8%; P < 0.0001).
Patients with PD were less likely to be diagnosed with colds. However, several confounding factors will need to be examined. Moreover, alpha-synuclein may provide protective resistance to viral infections by activating the immune system due to chronic inflammation in non-advanced PD patients.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2022.11.019
Title: Performance of [18F]RO948 PET, MRI and CSF neurofilament light in the differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy
Authors: Kevin Oliveira Hauer, Daria Pawlik, Antoine Leuzy, Shorena Janelidze, Sara Hall, Oskar Hansson, Ruben Smith
Type: Research Article
The diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is often challenging since PSP may clinically resemble other neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, the tau PET tracer [18F]RO948, a potential new biomarker for PSP, was developed. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of three different biomarkers, including [18F]RO948 PET, to distinguish PSP patients from healthy controls and from patients with α-synucleinopathies.
Patients with PSP (n = 23), α-synucleinopathies (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 61) were included from the BioFINDER-2 study. [18F]RO948 standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR), magnetic resonance imaging midbrain/pons ratio, and cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light (NfL) levels were compared between diagnostic groups individually and in combination.
[18F]RO948 PET SUVR in the globus pallidus, NfL, and midbrain/pons area ratios were all able to differentiate PSP patients from controls and from patients with α-synucleinopathies ([18F]RO948 [mean ± SD]: controls 1.24 ± 0.22; PSP 1.47 ± 0.4; PD 1.18 ± 0.2; DLB 1.25 ± 0.24, p < 0.05), (NfL pg/mL [mean ± SD]: controls 1055 ± 569; PSP 2197 ± 1010; PD 1038 ± 416; DLB 1548 ± 687, p < 0.001) and (midbrain/pons ratio [mean ± SD]: controls 0.46 ± 0.07; PSP 0.34 ± 0.09; PD 0.43 ± 0.06; DLB 0.40 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that combining the three biomarkers resulted in the highest area under the ROC values (0.94 [0.88–1.00]) for separating controls from PSP and (0.92 [0.85–0.99]) for separating PSP from α-synucleinopathies.
All studied biomarkers could individually separate PSP from controls and α-synucleinopathies patients at a group level. The optimal prediction models included NfL and midbrain/pons ratio for separating controls from PSP and all three biomarkers for separating PSP from α-synucleinopathies.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2022.11.018
Title: Potential application of heat shock proteins as therapeutic targets in Parkinson's disease
Authors: Haodong Guo, Jingsong Yi, Fan Wang, Tong Lei, Hongwu Du
Type: Review Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disease, and the heat shock proteins (HSPs) are proved to be of great value for PD. In addition, HSPs can maintain protein homeostasis, degrade and inhibit protein aggregation by properly folding and activating intracellular proteins in PD. This study mainly summarizes the important roles of HSPs in PD and explores their feasibility as targets. We introduced the structural and functional characteristics of HSPs and the physiological functions of HSPs in PD. HSPs can protect neurons from damage by degrading aggregates with three mechanisms, including the aggregation and removing α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates, promotion the autophagy of abnormal proteins, and inhibition the apoptosis of degenerated neurons. This study underscores the importance of HSPs as targets in PD and helps to expand new mechanisms in PD treatment strategies.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2022.105453
Title: From protein biomarkers to proteomics in dementia with Lewy Bodies
Authors: Augoustos Tsamourgelis, Peter Swann, Leonidas Chouliaras, John T. O'Brien
Type: Review Article
Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia. Despite considerable research progress, there remain gaps in our understanding of the pathophysiology and there is no disease-modifying treatment. Proteomics is a powerful tool to elucidate complex biological pathways across heterogenous conditions. This review summarizes the widely used proteomic methods and presents evidence for protein dysregulation in the brain and peripheral tissues in DLB. Proteomics of post-mortem brain tissue shows that DLB shares common features with other dementias, such as synaptic dysfunction, but retains a unique protein signature. Promising diagnostic biomarkers are being identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and peripheral tissues, such as serum Heart-type fatty acid binding protein. Research is needed to track these changes from the prodromal stage to established dementia, with standardized workflows to ensure replicability. Identifying novel protein targets in causative biological pathways could lead to the development of new targeted therapeutics or the stratification of participants for clinical trials.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2022.101771
Title: Targeting α-synuclein post-translational modifications in Parkinson's disease
Authors: Jaquelini B. Canever，Ericks Sousa Soares，Núbia C.P. de Avelar，Helena I. Cimarosti
Type: Research Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Although the exact mechanisms underlying PD are still not completely understood, it is well accepted that α-synuclein plays key pathophysiological roles as the main constituent of the cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Several post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as the best-known phosphorylation, target α-synuclein and are thus implicated in its physiological and pathological functions. In this review, we present (1) an overview of the pathophysiological roles of α-synuclein, (2) a descriptive analysis of α-synuclein PTMs, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, acetylation, glycation, truncation, and O-GlcNAcylation, as well as (3) a brief summary on α-synuclein PTMs as potential biomarkers for PD. A better understanding of α-synuclein PTMs is of paramount importance for elucidating the mechanisms underlying PD and can thus be expected to improve early detection and monitoring disease progression, as well as identify promising new therapeutic targets.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2022.114204