Our staff editors continue to share exciting, interesting, and thought-provoking reading material in the recommended articles series.
This week, we would like to share several latest articles are related to Neurodegenerative Disorders and Parkinson's Disease.
Title: Assessment of risks, implications, and opportunities of waterborne neurotoxic pesticides
Authors: Delaram Dara, Andrei P. Drabovich
Type: Review Article
Pesticides are a well-known family of chemicals that have contaminated water systems globally. Four common subfamilies of pesticides include organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamate insecticides which have been shown to adversely affect the human nervous system. Studies have shown a link between pesticide exposure and decreased viability, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of murine neural stem cells. Besides human exposure directly through water systems, additional factors such as pesticide bioaccumulation, biomagnification and potential synergism due to co-exposure to other environmental contaminants must be considered. A possible avenue to investigate the molecular mechanisms and biomolecules impacted by the various classes of pesticides includes the field of -omics. Discovery of the precise molecular mechanisms behind pesticide-mediated neurodegenerative disorders may facilitate development of targeted therapeutics. Likewise, discovery of pesticide biodegradation pathways may enable novel approaches for water system bioremediation using genetically engineered microorganisms. In this mini-review, we discuss recently established harmful impacts of various categories of pesticides on the nervous system and the application of -omics field for discovery, validation, and mitigation of pesticide neurotoxicity.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2022.03.033
Title: Intelligent polymeric hydrogen sulfide delivery systems for therapeutic applications
Authors: Fan Rong, Tengjiao Wang, Qian Zhou, Haowei Peng, Jingtian Yang, Quli Fan, Peng Li
Type: Review Article
●H2S is an endogenous gasotransmitter that plays important role in regulating various physiological and pathological pathways.
●Controlled H2S delivery is vital since the therapeutic effects of H2S are highly associated with its concentrations.
●Intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems possess specific targeting, stimuli responsive and imaging guided capabilities, representing a strategic option for next generation of therapies.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in regulating various pathological processes such as protecting mammalian cell from harmful injuries, promoting tissue regeneration, and regulating the process of various diseases caused by physiological disorders. Studies have revealed that the physiological effects of H2S are highly associated with its concentrations. At relatively low concentration, H2S shows beneficial functions. However, long-time and high-dose donation of H2S would inhibit regular biological process, resulting in cell dysfunction and apoptosis. To regulate the dosage of H2S delivery for precision medicine, H2S delivery systems with intelligent characteristics were developed and a variety of biocompatibility polymers have been utilized to establish intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems, with the abilities to specifically target the lesions, smartly respond to pathological microenvironments, as well as real-timely monitor H2S delivery and lesion conditions by incorporating imaging-capable moieties. In this review, we focus on the design, preparation, and therapeutic applications of intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems in cardiovascular therapy, inflammatory therapy, tissue regenerative therapy, cancer therapy and bacteria-associated therapy. Strategies for precise H2S therapies especially imaging-guided H2S theranostics are highlighted. Since H2S donors with stimuli-responsive characters are vital components for establishing intelligent H2S delivery systems, the development of H2S donors is also briefly introduced.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.03.043
Title: Nutritional Benefits of Peanut By-Products
Authors: Rossella Vadalà, Giuseppa Di Bella, Olga Kosakovska, Giacomo Dugo, Nicola Cicero, Rosaria Costa
Currently, one of the greatest concerns of the world society is the environmental decay: global warming, climate change, resources depletion, constitute a striking request for urgent action. Within the framework of a green and sustainable policy, an ever-increasing number of applications in literature is focused on recycling and giving new life to discarded materials. An enormous bulk of waste comes from the agri-food industry, that is gaining reputation as a source of raw material and bioactives, employed in food supplements and nutraceuticals. Peanut crops represent a huge market, with a consolidated tradition of cultivation and processing in the Asian and American continents. Although the uses made of peanuts in the two regions vary (peanut oil vs. refined food products), the amount of by-products derived from peanut processing is extremely high. In this chapter, after an introduction on the agronomical and industrial aspects of Arachis hypogaea, a detailed description of its by-products is given as concerns their obtainment, proximate composition, bioactivity, and exploitation. Special emphasis is dedicated to their nutritional properties, through numerous studies reporting either in vitro assays or applications in food industry. A final remark is provided on the anti-nutrients, as well as on the allergenic potential of such matrices.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-823960-5.00018-4
Title: Novel Functional Foods From Plants of the Mediterranean Area: Biological, Chemical, Metabolomic Approaches
Authors: Fatema R. Saber, Engy A. Mahrous
Novel functional foods have recently emerged to satisfy the demand for healthy and nutrient dense foods with biological potential. The Mediterranean diet is well known for being rich in vegetables, fruits, nuts and olive oil products. Herein, we discuss recent functional foods with biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, prebiotic and modulatory of the gut microbiota. This chapter includes novel functional foods prepared from dried fruits such as raisins, dates, figs and plums. The nuts are also recognized as food with functional properties and are represented by pine nuts, tiger nuts, almonds and pistachios. Drinks from Mediterranean region in addition to legumes products of carob, fenugreek and fava beans are also included. Further, metabolic and/or chemical profiling, physiochemical properties are reported for these functional products. The reported phytoconstituents include flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, phenylethanoids, phenolic acids and stilbenoids. Also, proteins, dietary fibers and peptides proposed from these plant products are also discussed.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-823960-5.00032-9
Title: Emerging role of HDL in brain cholesterol metabolism and neurodegenerative disorders
Authors: Marta Turri, Cinzia Marchi, Maria Pia Adorni, Laura Calabresi, Francesca Zimetti
Type: Review Article
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) play a key role in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance in the central nervous system (CNS), by carrying newly synthesized cholesterol from astrocytes to neurons, to support their lipid-related physiological functions. As occurs for plasma HDL, brain lipoproteins are assembled through the activity of membrane cholesterol transporters, undergo remodeling mediated by specific enzymes and transport proteins, and finally deliver cholesterol to neurons by a receptor-mediated internalization process. A growing number of evidences indicates a strong association between alterations of CNS cholesterol homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a possible role in this relationship may be played by defects in brain HDL metabolism. In the present review, we summarize and critically examine the current state of knowledge on major modifications of HDL and HDL-mediated brain cholesterol transport in AD, by taking into consideration the individual steps of this process. We also describe potential and encouraging HDL-based therapies that could represent new therapeutic strategies for AD treatment. Finally, we revise the main plasma and brain HDL modifications in other neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2022.159123
Title: Salivary biomarkers of neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases and biosensors for their detection
Authors: Riccardo Goldoni, Carolina Dolci, Elisa Boccalari, Francesco Inchingolo, Alessandro Paghi, Lucanos Strambini, Daniela Galimberti, Gianluca Martino Tartaglia
Type: Review Article
●Aging is among the most important risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases.
●Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases can be diagnosed with salivary biomarkers.
●Saliva is an extremely promising biofluid for rapid and noninvasive diagnostics.
●Advanced biosensing technologies can greatly help the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.
Salivary analysis is gaining increasing interest as a novel and promising field of research for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases related to aging. The collection of saliva offers several advantages, being noninvasive, stress-free, and repeatable. Moreover, the detection of biomarkers directly in saliva could allow an early diagnosis of the disease, leading to timely treatments. The aim of this manuscript is to highlight the most relevant researchers’ findings relatively to salivary biomarkers of neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases, and to describe innovative and advanced biosensing strategies for the detection of salivary biomarkers. This review is focused on five relevant aging-related neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis) and the salivary biomarkers most commonly associated with them. Advanced biosensors enabling molecular diagnostics for the detection of salivary biomarkers are presented, in order to stimulate future research in this direction and pave the way for their clinical application.
Access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2022.101587